Public Void @f2prateek


This week we enabled gzip for our mobile libraries. Gzip is a compression format widely used in HTTP networking. With gzip we saw over 10x reduction in the POST request body to upload our batched event data.

Our Tracking API uses (mostly) vanilla Go. Enabling gzip decompression was a breeze using the compress/gzip package (thanks Amir).

func (s *Server) handle(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request)
  encoding := r.Header.Get("Content-Encoding")
  if encoding == "gzip" {
  	z, err := gzip.NewReader(r.Body)
  	if err != nil {
  		http.Error(w, "malformed gzip content", 400)

  	defer z.Close()
  	r.Body = z

On Android, we can take advantage of GZIPOutputStream from the Java standard library.

void post(byte[] data) throws IOException {
  URL url = new URL("");
  HttpURLConnection conn = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
  conn.setRequestProperty("Content-Encoding", "gzip");
  conn.setRequestProperty("Content-Type", "application/json");
  OutputStream os = conn.getOutputStream();
  OutputStream gzipped = new GZIPOutputStream(os);

Adding iOS support was the most challenging of the three. There are no standard library APIs for gzipping data, so we pulled in the relevant code from Nick Lockwood’s implementation on Github. The final snippet is tiny and fits perfectly as an NSData extension.

#import "NSData+GZIP.h"

- (void)sendData:(NSData *)data
    NSMutableURLRequest *urlRequest = [NSMutableURLRequest requestWithURL:@""];
    [urlRequest setValue:@"gzip" forHTTPHeaderField:@"Content-Encoding"];
    [urlRequest setValue:@"application/json" forHTTPHeaderField:@"Content-Type"];
    [urlRequest setHTTPMethod:@"POST"];
    [urlRequest setHTTPBody:[data gzippedData]];

Implementing it across our different code bases was surprisingly easy. We were up and running from discussion to implementation within a day’s worth of work across our server and mobile libraries. And the savings definitely made it worth our time!

Factory functions in Go

Static factory methods are extremely powerful in Java, as noted in Item 1 of Effective Java. Here’s a translation of how factory functions are effective in Go.

There are a few ways to create a value of a struct.

// Allocating memory with new.
buf := new(bytes.Buffer) // type *bytes.Buffer

// Simply declaring the variable.
var buf bytes.Buffer

// Using a struct initializer.
buf := bytes.Buffer{}

Structs that cannot be used in their zero value, require an initialization constructor.

f := os.File{fd, name, nil, 0}

There is another way for packages to let clients allocate and initialize structs. A package can provide an factory function, which is an exported function that returns an initialized struct using one of the options seen above. Here’s an example from the strings package. This function returns a newly initialized strings.Reader struct.

func NewReader(s string) *Reader {
  return &Reader{s, 0, -1}

One advantage of factory functions is that, unlike initializers, they provide initialization logic. Packages can use this for a variety purposes. For example, http.NewRequest checks that the given URL string is a valid URL. Packages can also use this to initialize internal dependencies. The http.NewServeMux function transparently initializes internal fields.

package http

func NewServeMux() *ServeMux {
  return &ServeMux{m: make(map[string]muxEntry)}
package foo

mux := http.NewServeMux()

Without a factory function, both the field m and type muxEntry would have to be exported in it’s public API, additionally forcing clients to initialize them.

package foo

mux := &http.ServeMux{M: make(map[string]http.MuxEntry)}

A second advantage of factory functions is that, unlike initializers, they are not required to create a new value each time they’re invoked. This allows packages to return preinitialized values, or cache values as they’re initialized and dispense them repeatedly to avoid unnecessary allocations. These implementations can all be provided with a single API using a factory function, and gives packages better control over the behavior and performance characteristics as needed.

A third advantage of factory functions is that, unlike initializers, they can return a value of any subtype of their return type. This gives packages greater flexibility in choosing the type of the returned value. One application of this flexibility is that an API can return interface with making their actual type public. For example, the errors.New function returns an error interface and not *errorString. This requires callers to reference the return value by its interface rather than it’s concrete type. In a future version, Go could completely remove the errorString type, and replace it with another implementation of error without breaking API compatibility. Consumers of the API would be none the wiser.

The main disadvantage of factory functions is that, unlike initializers, they are not readily distinguishable from other functions. This makes it difficult to figure out how to use a struct that must be initialized via a factory function. The best workaround for now is to rally around established conventions. Factory functions are typically named New (as in errors.New) or New{type} (as in bufio.NewReader). GoDoc will also surface factory functions under their struct types.

A second disadvantage of factory functions is that, unlike initializers, they don’t support named arguments. This makes consumer code harder to read and figure out what the values represent.

package foo

// Using a factory function.
req, _ := http.NewRequest("GET", "", nil)

// Using a struct initializer.
req := &http.Request{
  Method: "GET",
  URL: MustParse(""),
  Body: nil,

Arguably, the former can be easier to comprehend since the http.Request type contains a total of 19 fields. This makes it confusing for new consumers, who have no idea which fields are required to correctly initialize a request. Using a factory function allows the http package to highlight the fields required for proper initialization. For structs that do need lots of configuration options, using a dedicated config struct is also a viable option.

Rx Preferences

Android’s SharedPreferences offers a convenient mechanism to persist a collection of key-value pairs.

It’s simplistic API makes it limiting for a few reasons:

  • Callers must always know the preference key and type.
  • No support for storing custom types out of the box.
  • Callers cannot listen for changes to individual keys.

RxPreferences is a new(ish) library that builds on top of SharedPreferences to solve these problems, and takes it further by integrating with RxJava.

Typed Preferences

SharedPreferences requires callers to always know what key identifies a preference when they get or save a preference. Callers also need to keep track of what type was used for a preference (did the preference use a float or int), which can lead to subtle bugs.

SharedPreferences preferences = getDefaultSharedPreferences(this);
preferences.edit().putFloat("scale", 3.14f).commit();

// Circumvents the compiler and blows up at runtime.
preferences.getInt("scale", 0);

RxPreferences introduces a Preference class, that identifies key used to store it and the type of data it holds, making it easier to spot such bugs at compile time. RxSharedPreferences provides factory methods to promote preferences to objects.

SharedPreferences preferences = getDefaultSharedPreferences(this);
RxSharedPreferences rxPrefs = RxSharedPreferences.create(preferences);
Preference<Integer> foo = rxPrefs.getInt("foo");

foo.set(3.14f); // Will not compile!

The Preference class provides methods that replace their counterparts in SharedPreferences and SharedPreferences.Editor. This makes it convenient to use them as the source of truth, instead of sharing String constants throughout your app.

class Preference<T> {
    // Equivalent to SharedPreferences.Editor#get….
    T get();

    // Equivalent to SharedPreferences#contains.
    boolean isSet();

    // Equivalent to SharedPreferences.Editor#put….
    void set(T);

    // Equivalent to SharedPreferences.Editor#remove.
    void delete();


SharedPreferences restricts you to a set of limited types — boolean, float, int, long, String and Set<String>. Trying to persist custom types is doable, but looks awkward.

@Inject SharedPreferences preferences;

// Gets unwieldy when repeated in 10 different places.
String serialized = preferences.getString("point", null);
if (serialized != null) {
  Point point = Point.parse(serialized);
  preferences.putString("point", point.toString());

RxPreferences introduces a pluggable Adapter abstraction. An Adapter can store and retrieve values of an arbitrary type, and consolidates your serialization logic into a single location.

public interface Adapter<T> {
  T get(String key, SharedPreferences preferences);

  void set(String key,  T value, Editor editor);

RxPreferences provides built in adapters for all the types suppored by SharedPreferences and enums. Writing a custom adapter is trivial. You can even use your own favorite serialization library!

class GsonPreferenceAdapter<T> implements Adapter<T> {
  final Gson gson;
  private Class<T> clazz;

  // Constructor and exception handling omitted for brevity.

  public T get(String key, SharedPreferences preferences) {
    return gson.fromJson(preferences.getString(key), clazz);

  public void set(String key, T value, Editor editor) {
    editor.putString(key, gson.toJson(value));

Then, simply let RxPreferences know which adapter you want to use.

GsonPreferenceAdapter<Point> adapter
    = new GsonPreferenceAdapter<>(gson, Point.class);
Preference<Point> pref = rxPrefs.getObject("point", null, adapter);

// Easy Peasy!
Point point = pref.get();

Reactive Bindings

OnSharedPreferenceChangeListener requires that listeners observe changes to all keys. Callers must filter values for the keys they’re interested in.

@Inject SharedPreferences prefs;

prefs.registerOnSharedPreferenceChangeListener((prefs, key) -> {
  // This is a firehose of information!
  // Ignore keys we aren't interested in.
  if !FOO_KEY.equals(key) return;

   boolean foo = prefs.getBoolean(key, false);

The Preference class integrates with RxJava, and lets you observe changes to a single preference directly. Internally, RxPreferences shares a single listener amongst all Preference objects to avoid unnecessary work.

@Inject @FooPreference BooleanPreference fooPreference;

  .subscribe((enabled) -> System.out.println(enabled));


RxPreferences also lets you take actions on preferences to update or delete values. This makes it straightforward to set up complex pipelines by combining it with other libraries in the RxJava family.

For example, RxPreferences and RxBinding can be combined to hand roll your own simplified CheckBoxPreference.

@Inject @LocationPreference BooleanPreference locationPreference;
@BindView( CheckBox checkBox;

// Update the checkbox when the preference changes.

// Update preference when the checkbox state changes.
  .skip(1) // Skip the initial value.

RxPreferences v1

RxPreferences makes it convenient to interact with SharedPreferences, and integrating with RxJava makes it easy to express complex logic that would otherwise have been tedious and brittle. RxPreferences is available on Maven Central. Check the Github repo or u2020 to see more examples.

Happy persisting!

Thanks to Jake Wharton for polishing the API, and to Diana Smith for reading drafts of this post.

Cleaning up subscriptions

When you create a new Observable, you’ll often want to clean up whenever a Subscriber unsubscribes from the Observable. The Subscriber class exposes a handy add method that does exactly what we want.

For instance, here’s how you would create an Observable that emits the keys that were changed for some SharedPreferences. It registers a new OnSharedPreferenceChangeListener when a subscriber subscribes, and automatically unregisters the listener when the subscriber unsubscribes.

Observable.create((subscriber) -> {
        final OnSharedPreferenceChangeListener listener =
            (preferences, key) -> {


        subscriber.add(Subscriptions.create(() -> {

On the Observer side of things, you can also enqueue actions to be executed each time a Subscriber unsubscribes from an Observable with the doOnUnSubscribe method.

Micro Gson

JSON is a popular format data exchange format between services. Naturally, we use JSON for our public HTTP API. Most of our client libraries are a wrapper around this with a bit of sugar mixed in.

If you’re an Android application developer, you should use Gson, Jackson or one of the numerous databinding libraries. They’re fast, (relatively) tiny, and provide simple, yet powerful APIs. Unfortunately library developers don’t have the luxury of bundling such large libraries. So we turned to APIs available in the core Android SDK.

Android ships two JSON APIs. org.json is a simple tree API, while JsonReader/JsonWriter is a lower level streaming API, available only on Android 3.0+. Our first versions of the SDK used org.json, since it was available on all versions Android, and was in use by a lot of our bundled integrations, such as Mixpanel. Although this was convenient, it resulted in a sub-optimal experience for clients. Since we let users pass in their metadata, I wanted to hide our implementation details for the next version and expose a simpler API. One of my prototypes essentially tried to replicate Gson. I liked the idea of databinding so clients didn’t have to learn any new APIs and could use their POJOs instead.

Trying to re-create Gson was not only a daunting task, but impractical (we were trying to keep the method count down after all) and wasteful. We didn’t need to support top level generic types, @SerializedName equivalent, field arrays, custom type adapters, and probably quite a few other use cases. By constraining the problem, I prototyped a implementation that does the job. It use the JsonReader/JsonWriter to read/write the JSON and combines it with the reflection API to do databinding. It’s also very similar (albeit much more complex) to how Gson approaches the issue. If you’ve wondered what Gson does under the hood, this might be a good place to start. Here’s a snippet from the class to show how serialization works.

  void toJson(Object object, JsonWriter writer) {
    if (object == null) {
    } else if (object instanceof String) {
      writer.value((String) object);
    } else if (object instanceof Number) {
      writer.value((Number) object);
    } else if (object instanceof Boolean) {
      writer.value((Boolean) object);
    } else if (object instanceof Enum) {
    } else if (object instanceof Collection) {
      Collection collection = (Collection) object;
      if (collection.size() == 0) {
        for (Object value : collection) {
          toJson(value, writer);
    } else if (object instanceof Map) {
      Map<?, ?> map = (Map) object;
      for (Map.Entry<?, ?> entry : map.entrySet()) {;
        toJson(entry.getValue(), writer);
    } else {
      List<Field> fields = getFields(object);
      for (Field field : fields) {;
        toJson(field.get(object), writer);

Pretty easy, eh? My favourite part is that it can be hidden behind a Converter interface!

public interface Converter {
  public <T> T fromJson(InputStream inputStream, Class<T> clazz);
  public <T> void toJson(T object, OutputStream outputStream);

This interface can be exposed to clients. It lets us provide an implementation ready to use out of the box, but clients can plug in their own implementations if they need more complex use cases. Here’s an implementation if they’re using Gson.

public class GsonConverter implements Converter {
  private final Gson gson;

  public GsonConverter(Gson gson) {
    this.gson = gson;

  public <T> T fromJson(InputStream inputStream, Class<T> clazz) {
    Reader reader = new InputStreamReader(inputStream);
    return gson.fromJson(reader, type);

  public <T> void toJson(OutputStream os, T object) {
    Writer writer = new OutputStreamWriter(outputStream);
    gson.toJson(object, writer);

Although it lost out to another approach, it was a fun little exercise to come up with this class.